Weed management in peanut generally requires a soil-applied dinitroanaline herbicide PPI for annual grass control followed by (fb) multiple applications of POST herbicide mixtures for broad-spectrum weed control (Bridges et al., 1994; Wilcut et al., 1994, 1996). Soil-applied herbicides in peanut typically used include dimethenamid, ethalfluralin, pendimethalin, and S-metolachlor. These herbicides control annual grasses and small-seeded broadleaf weeds such as Florida pusley (Richardia scabra L.), common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), and Amaranthus species (Cardina and Swann, 1988; Wehtje et al., 1988; Wilcut et al., 1991a, 1991b). Unfortunately, these herbicides do not control larger seeded broadleaf weeds including Ipomoea species and prickly sida that are problematic in the Virginia-North Carolina area (Richburg et al., 1996; Webster, 2001; Wilcut, 1991; Wilcut et al., 1989, 1991a, 1991b, 1994). Therefore, control of these species requires POST herbicide applications. To further complicate matters for producers, there are 43 weeds of economic importance in the nine peanut growing states in the United States; seven of these are of economic importance to the Virginia-North Carolina peanut growing area (Bridges et al., 1994). To control these peanut pests, growers use 22 herbicides and mechanical tactics available (Hook, 2000).
Diclosulam is a new triazolopyrimidine sulfonanilide soil-applied herbicide that is registered for broadleaf and perennial sedge weed management in peanut and soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] (Bailey et al., 1999a, 1999b; Barnes et al., 1998). A number of peanut varieties have exhibited excellent tolerance to diclosulam treatments (Bailey et al., 2000; Main et al., 2002) and diclosulam provides control of a number of troublesome annual broadleaf weeds (Bailey et al., 1999a, 1999b, 2000; Main et al., 2000; Price et al., 2002).
Diclosulam plus ethalfluralin PPI provides broad-spectrum control of problematic weeds found in the Virginia-Carolina area (Bailey et al., 1999a, 1999b). Many Virginia-North Carolina peanut growers use metolachlor PPI for annual grass control as Texas panicum (Panicum texanum Buckl.) is not widespread and metolachlor provides some control of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) (Bridges et al., 1994; Grichar et al., 1992). Ethalfluralin and pendimethalin do not control yellow nutsedge (Wilcut et al., 1994). However, metolachlor PPI is not as effective as ethalfluralin PPI for control of common lambsquarters, one of the most common broadleaf weeds in Virginia-North Carolina peanut production.
The objectives of this research were to evaluate weed control, crop response, and peanut yield with diclosulam and or S-metolachlor applied PPI and in a systems approach with registered POST herbicides.
Materials and Methods
Field experiments were conducted at the Peanut Belt Research Station located near Lewiston-Woodville, NC in 1998, the Upper Coastal Plain Research Station located near Rocky Mount, NC in 1998 and 1999, and the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center near Suffolk, VA in 1998. Soils were a Raines sandy loam (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic, Typic Kandiudults) with 1.1% organic matter and pH 5.9 at Lewiston-Woodville, NC in 1998, a Norfolk sandy loam, (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic, Typic Paleudults) with 1.1% organic matter and pH 5.8 at Rocky Mount, NC in 1998 and 1999, and a sandy loam with 1.5% organic matter and pH 6.1 at Suffolk. These experimental sites are representative of the major peanut producing areas of North Carolina and Virginia.
Peanut cultivars included ‘NC 10 C’ at Lewiston-Woodville, ‘NC 7’ at Rocky Mount, and ‘NC-V 11’ at Suffolk. Peanuts were planted 5 cm deep in smooth seedbeds at 120 to 130 kg/ha. Seeding rates were typical for these regions according to state extension recommendations. Pest management practices other than herbicide programs were based on Cooperative Extension recommendations.
Weed species evaluated included common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), entireleaf morningglory (Ipomoea hederacea var. integruiscula Gray), goosegrass [Eleusine indica(L.) Gaertn.], pitted morningglory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.), and smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.). These weeds are among the most common and troublesome weeds in North Carolina-Virginia peanut production (Webster, 2001). At the time of POST treatments, broadleaf weeds had one to six leaves with densities ranging from 1 to 35 plants per species per m2. Plot size was four 91-cm rows that were 6.1 m in length. POST herbicides were applied 14 to 20 days after peanut emergence. These application timings are typical of commercial POST systems in North Carolina and Virginia peanut (Wilcut et al., 1991a, 1991b, 1994, 1995).
Weed management systems one, two, and three received diclosulam PPI at 17, 26, or 35 g ai/ha, respectively. Systems four through six received S-metolachlor PPI at 1.42 kg ai/ha plus diclosulam PPI at 17, 26, or 35 g/ha, respectively. Systems seven and eight received S-metolachlor PPI at 1.42 kg/ha plus diclosulam PPI at 17 and 26 g/ha, respectively, fb acifluorfen at 280 g ai/ha plus bentazon at 560 g ai/ha POST. Systems nine and 10 received S-metolachlor PPI at 1.42 kg/ha fb acifluorfen at 280 g/ha plus bentazon at 560 g/ha POST or imazapic POST at 71 g ai/ha. Acifluorfen plus bentazon POST is the commercial standard for annual broadleaf weed control in North Carolina and Virginia peanuts while imazapic is the commercial POST standard for yellow and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) control (Bailey et al., 1999a, 1999b; Richburg et al., 1994, 1996; Scott et al., 2002; Wilcut, 1991; Wilcut et al., 1994). System 11 received S-metolachlor PPI at 1.42 kg/ha while system 12 was the nontreated check. A nonionic surfactant3 at 0.25% (v/v) was applied with all POST herbicide treatments.
A randomized complete block design with three replicates of treatments was utilized at all locations. Visual estimates of crop tolerance and weed control were made early (mid-June) and late season (late August to early September). Weed control and crop tolerance were visually estimated on a scale of 0 to 100% where 0 = no control and 100% = complete death of the weeds or crop (Frans et al., 1986). Because weed control at the end of the season influenced peanut yield and harvest efficiency, only late season evaluations of weed control will be presented (Wilcut et al., 1994, 1995). The two center rows of each plot were harvested in mid-October using conventional harvesting equipment. Final yields were adjusted to 7% moisture.
Data for weed control and crop injury were subjected to arcsine square root transformation before performing ANOVA. Nontransformed data are presented with statistical interpretation based on data. Data were combined over locations as there were no treatment by location interactions. For all variables, the nontreated check visual ratings were removed prior to ANOVA as no yields were obtained from these plots due to noncontrolled weeds. Means were separated using Fisher's protected LSD test at P = 0.05.
Results and Discussion
Only data from the 3 WAT evaluations are presented for crop injury. Crop injury from S-metolachlor plus diclosulam treatments or either treatment alone consisted of slight stunting that never exceeded 5% and was transitory (Table 1). This level of injury is typical from these herbicides in North Carolina and Virginia (Bailey et al., 1999a, 1999b, 2000; Price et al., 2001; Wilcut et al., 1991a, 1991b).
Smooth pigweed was controlled 73% with S-metolachlor PPI and this level of control was not further improved with the addition of acifluorfen plus bentazon POST (82% control) (Table 1). However, S-metolachlor fb imazapic POST controlled smooth pigweed 100%. Diclosulam PPI at all rates alone controlled smooth pigweed 100%, thus control was not further improved with the addition of S-metolachlor PPI or POST herbicide treatments. Grichar et al., (1999) reported ≥95% control of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) with diclosulam plus ethalfluralin PPI while ethalfluralin PPI controlled 77%. They also reported 99% control of Palmer amaranth with imazapic POST.
S-metolachlor PPI controlled common lambsquarter 70% and the addition of acifluorfen plus bentazon POST or imazapic POST controlled 93 and 90%, respectively (Table 1). Diclosalum PPI alone at all rates with or without metolachlor controlled at least 95% of the common lambsquarters populations. Since this level of control was so high, control with these systems was not further improved with additional herbicide inputs. Price et al., (2002) found that diclosulam PRE at all rates controlled common lambsquarters at least 90% in strip-tillage peanut production systems.
Pitted morningglory was not controlled by S-metolachlor (2%) and control was improved to 93% with acifluorfen plus bentazon POST or imazapic POST (Table 2). Excellent control of Ipomoea morningglories including pitted morningglory has been seen with imazapic POST in peanut ( Bailey et al., 1999; Richburg et al., 1996; Wilcut et al., 1996). Acifluorfen is also widely used for pitted morningglory control in peanut (Wilcut et al., 1994, 1995). Diclosulam PPI controlled pitted morningglory 63 to 91% with control increasing with increased rate of application. The registered use rate of diclosulam (26 g/ha) controlled 72%. Control with diclosulam PPI or S-metolachlor plus diclosulam PPI was similar within a given rate of diclosulam. All diclosulam PPI treatments fb acifluorfen plus bentazon POST controlled pitted morningglory at least 98%. Bailey et al., (1999b) reported 90 to 99% pitted morningglory control in North Carolina with diclosulam and ethalfluralin PPI, while Grichar et al., (1999) reported greater than 98% control in Texas.
All herbicide systems failed to control goosegrass greater than 70% (data not shown). Clethodim at 0.28 kg ai/ha plus 1.0% (v/v) crop oil concentrate was applied to all plots except the nontreated check in early July at all locations to facilitate harvest. The extensive fiberous root system of annual grasses interferes with peanut harvest and near 100% control is needed to maximize peanut yields (Wilcut et al., 1994). Clethodim is an effective herbicide treatment for POST control of goosegrass (Burke et al., 2002) and controlled goosegrass in these studies >98% (data not shown).
As expected, S-metolachlor PPI did not control entireleaf morningglory (Table 2). The addition of either imazapic POST or acifluorfen plus bentazon POST controlled entireleaf morningglory 93 and 85%, respectively, with no difference in control. Diclosulam PPI controlled ivyleaf morningglory 72, 78, and 93% with rates of 17, 26, and 35 g/ha, respectively. A tank mixture of S-metolachlor plus diclosulam PPI provided similar levels of control within a given rate of diclosulam. As seen with pitted morningglory, herbicide systems using S-metolachlor plus diclosulam PPI at 17 or 26 g/ha fb acifluorfen plus bentazon POST controlled ivyleaf morningglory >98%.
The value of herbicide use was apparent when peanut yield data were examined.
All herbicide-treated peanut yielded 1,050 to 2,920 kg/ha more than nontreated peanut (Table 2). These yield increases reflect increased weed control from herbicide systems (Tables 1 and 2). Peanut treated with S-metolachlor PPI yielded 2,500 kg/ha, which was less than peanut treated with diclosulam PPI or diclosulam PPI plus S-metolachlor PPI. Peanut treated with diclosum PPI yielded similarly and yields were not improved with additional herbicide inputs. These data show that S-metolachlor plus diclosulam PPI controlled common lambsquarters, entireleaf morningglory, pitted morningglory, and smooth pigweed better than either herbicide applied alone. At the registered rate of 26 g/ha for diclosulam, a POST treatment of acifluorfen plus bentazon was required to control entireleaf and pitted morningglory ≥98%.
The authors thank the station personnel at the Upper Coastal Plain Research Station, Peanut Belt Research Station, and the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center for the assistance in this research. Appreciation is also extended to the Peanut Growers Associations of North Carolina and Virginia, and Dow AgroSciences for partial funding of these research endeavors.
Bailey W. A. , Wilcut J. W. , Jordan D. L. , Swann C. W. , and Langston V. B. 1999a Weed management in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) with diclosulam preemergence. Weed Technol 13 : 450 – 456 .
Bailey W. A. , Wilcut J. W. , Jordan D. L. , Swann C. W. , and Langston V. B. 1999b Response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and selected weeds to diclosulam. Weed Technol 13 : 771 – 776 .
Bailey W. A. , Wilcut J. W. , Spears J. F. , Isleib T. G. , and Langston V. B. 2000 Diclosulam does not influence yields in eight Virginia market-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cultivars. Weed Technol 14 : 402 – 405 .
Barnes J. W. , Oliver L. R. , and Barrentine J. L. 1998 Potential of diclosulam (Strongarm) for weed control in soybeans. Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc 51 : 61 – 62 .
Bridges D. C. , Kvien C. K. , Hook J. E. , and Stark C. R. 1994 Weeds and herbicides of the Virginia-Carolina peanut market area. Appendix 3.1, In an analysis of the use and benefits of pesticides in U.S. grown peanut: III Virginia-Carolina production region National Environmentally Sound Production Agriculture Laboratory Tifton, GA 1 – 39 .
Cardina J. and Swann C. W. 1988 Metolachlor effects on peanut growth and development. Peanut Sci 15 : 57 – 60 .
Frans R. , Talbert R. , Marx D. , and Crowley H. 1986 Experimental design and techniques for measuring and analyzing plant response to weed control practices. 37 – 38 In Camper N. D. ed. Research Methods in Weed Science 3rd Ed., South Weed Sci. Soc Champaign, IL .
Grichar W. J. , Nester P. R. , and Colburn A. E. 1992 Nutsedge (Cyperus spp.) control in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) with imazethapyr. Weed Technol 6 : 396 – 400 .
Grichar W. J. , Dotray P. A. , and Sestak D. C. 1999 Diclosulam for weed control in Texas peanut. Peanut Sci 26 : 23 – 28 .
Hook J. E. 2000 Southeastern agriculture pest management analysis. NESPAL web site: http://nespal.cpes.peachnet.edu/home/research_projects/pest_management/default.asp.
Main C. L. , Tredaway Ducar J. , and MacDonald G. E. 2002 Varietal response of diclosulam on three runner-market type peanut varieties. Weed Technol 16 : 593 – 596 .
Main C. L. , Tredaway J. A. , and MacDonald G. E. 2000 Weed management systems for control of Florida beggarweed (Desmodium tortuosum) and sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia). Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc 53 : 33 – 34 .
Price A. J. , Wilcut J. W. , and Swann C. W. 2002 Weed management with diclosulam in peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Weed Technol 16 : 724 – 730 .
Richburg J. S. , Wilcut J. W. , and Wehtje G. R. 1994 Toxicity of AC 263,222 to purple (Cyperus rotundus) and yellow nutsedge (C. esculentus). Weed Sci 42 : 398 – 402 .
Richburg J. S. , Wilcut J. W. , Colvin D. L. , and Wiley G. R. 1996 Weed management in southeastern peanut (Arachis hypogaea) with AC 263,222. Weed Technol 10 : 145 – 152 .
Scott G. H. , Askew S. D. , Wilcut J. W. , and Bennett A. C. 2002 Economic evaluation of HADSS computer program in North Carolina peanut. Weed Sci 50 : 91 – 100 .
Webster T. M. 2001 Weed Survey- Southern States. Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc 54 : 244 – 270 .
Wehtje G. , Wilcut J. W. , Hicks T. V. , and McGuire J. 1988 Relative tolerance of peanuts to alachlor and metolachlor. Peanut Sci 15 : 53 – 56 .
Wilcut J. W. 1991 Economic yield response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) to postemergence herbicides. Weed Technol 4 : 416 – 420 .
Wilcut J. W. , Richburg J. S. , Wiley G. , and Walls F. R. 1996 Postemergence AC 263,222 systems for weed control in peanut. Weed Sci 44 : 104 – 110 .
Wilcut J. W. , Walls F. R. , and Norton D. N. 1991a Imazethapyr for broadleaf weed control in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea). Peanut Sci 18 : 26 – 30 .
Wilcut J. W. , Walls F. R. , and Norton D. N. 1991b Weed control, yield, and net returns using imazethapyr in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea). Weed Sci 38 : 243 – 248 .
Wilcut J. W. , Wehtje G. R. , Cole T. A. , Hicks T. V. , and McGuire J. A. 1989 Postemergence weed control systems without dinoseb for peanuts (Arachis hypogaea). Weed Sci 37 : 385 – 391 .
Wilcut J. W. , York A. C. , Grichar W. J. , and Wehtje G. R. 1995 The biology and management of weeds in peanut (Arachis hypogaea). 207 – 244 In Pattee H. E. and Stalker H. T. eds. Advances in Peanut Science Amer. Peanut Res. Educ. Soc Stillwater, OK .
Wilcut J. W. , York A. C. , and Wehtje G. R. 1994 The control and interaction of weeds in peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Rev. Weed Sci 6 : 177 – 205 .
- Received for publication Date, and in revised form Date. [^]
- Induce® nonionic low foam wetter/spreader adjuvant containing 90% nonionic surfactant (alkylarylpolyoxyalkane ether and isopropanol) and free fatty acids, and 10% water. Manufactured by Helena Chemical Company, Suite 500, 6075 Poplar Avenue, Memphis, TN 38137. [^]
- Regional Ext. Spec., Sand Mountain REC, 13112 Alabama Hwy. 68, Crossville, AL 35962; Professor and Associate Professor, Crop Science Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7620; Assistant Professor, and Professor, Tidewater Agricultural Experiment Station, Suffolk, VA 23437. Email address of corresponding author: email@example.com. [^]