Extremes of soil temperature limit yield development of peanut. To obtain information relevant to improving yield by agronomic management and breeding, the influence of the soil temperature regimes (daynight) of 20/14 (T1), 26/20 (T2), 32/26 (T3), and 38/32 C (T4) imposed from the time of peg penetration into the soil until maturity on growth and development of three spanish genotypes of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) was investigated in a greenhouse. Soil temperature treatments were imposed by placing pots with individual plants in large temperature-controlled water baths. With increasing soil temperature from T1 to T3, leaves, stems and lateral roots became thinner. The leaf area increased from T1 to T3. The lateral root length increased up to maturity more at higher than at lower temperatures. The number of mature pods per plant, mature single seed mass, and therefore mature total seed mass per plant were highest at the intermediate temperature regimes, less at the warmest, and lowest at the coldest treatment. In early reproductive stages, pod inititation rate increased with decreasing soil temperature. Total pod growth and development of mature pods was lowest in T1, although pod initiation was high. Suboptimal soil temperatures slowed pod filling and maturation. At T4, one reason for the lower mature pod number compared to the intermediate temperature treatments seems to be the low pod initiation rate at early reproductive stages. These responses to temperature suggest agronomic management and genetic options for increasing yield at nonoptimal soil temperatures, such as irrigation during pod initiation stage when soil temperatures are high.
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Keywords: Agronomic management, Groundnut, pod initiation rate, yield
How to Cite:
Golombek, S. & Johansen, C., (1997) “Effect of Soil Temperature on Vegetative and Reproductive Growth and Development in Three Spanish Genotypes of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)”, Peanut Science 24(2), p.67-72. doi: https://doi.org/10.3146/i0095-3679-24-2-1