Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars resistant to Pythium myriotylum Drechs. and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, are needed for effective management of pod rotting diseases. The low efficiency of field screening for disease reaction in breeding for resistance has emphasized the need for improved evaluation methods. Anatomical examinations of roots, stems, leaves, pegs, and shells were made of six genotypes (TxAG-3, PI 341885, Toalson, Starr, Florunner, and Goldin I) with various degrees of resistance to pod rots in search of traits that might be used effectively in screening for disease reaction. The palisade mesophyll cells of 50-day old plants were arranged more compactly in pod rot resistant than in susceptible genotypes. An index representing total width (μm) of palisade cells/mm leaf blade was more discriminative in distinguishing among genotypes than average of either cell width or cell number alone. The distribution of lignin in peanut shells was correlated with pod rot resistance. The cell walls in the epicarp and sclerenchymatous mesocarp were thicker and more lignified in the resistant than in the susceptible genotypes. Genotypic differences in lignin distribution were readily apparent at 100x when shell sections were stained with phloroglucinol. Associations between anatomical traits of stems, pegs, roots, or juvenile plant leaflets and field pod rot reaction were not consistent among all genotypes. However, lignin-distribution in pods, and an index representing μm of palisade cells/mm of leaf blade individually or in combination, might be used effectively to supplement field evaluations in screening breeding lines for pod disease reaction.
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Keywords: Arachis hypogaea, Pythium Myriotylum, Rhizoctonia Solani, lignin distribution, phloroglucinol test, palisade mesophyll cells
How to Cite:
Godoy, R. & Smith, O. & Taber, R. & Pettit, R.,
(1985) “Anatomical Traits Associated With Pod Rot Resistance in Peanut¹”,
Peanut Science 12(1),
01 Jul 1985